CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS TECHNOLOGY COURSE

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS TECHNOLOGY COURSE

Course Description

DURATION

14 hours (Two (2) days)

 

TARGET GROUP

 Engineers, Operators, and Technicians in Maintenance, Engineering, Production and anyone who wishes to update themselves on Maintenance Engineering Technologies, judges the suitability of these technologies for their needs, and learns how to implement them for the benefit of their organizations.

 

TARGETED INDUSTRY/INDUSTRIES

Oil & Gas, Petrochemicals, Power Plant, Renewal Energy Plant, Co-Generation Plant, Refineries and others related industries that using process centrifugal compressors.

 

CERTIFICATION

This course can be certified for the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Program by the Board of Engineers, Malaysia (BEM).

 

COURSE OVERVIEW

This Centrifugal Compressor Technology Course entails a study of gas compression and expansion laws applied to industrial processes followed by an illustration of the different types of rotating machines usually encountered in plants, and their related aspects.

 

COURSE OBJECTIVE

The aim is to provide a satisfactory approach to the problems posed by compressors and the means to solve them.

Key highlights of this training course are: –

  • Understanding of monitoring techniques as applied to centrifugal compressors
  • Ability to put in place measures to quantify equipment condition
  • Interface with and control service providers
  • Identify and specify new centrifugal compressor and turbine plant

 

COURSE OUTCOMES

Upon completion of this course, participant will be able to: –

  • Familiarise different compressor designs
  • Learn how different design parameter affects the machines performance and operation
  • Read and calculate the performance curves of centrifugal compressors.
  • Familiarise with the control and protection systems of centrifugal compressor systems
  • Familiarise the start and shut down of the centrifugal compressors
  • Recognize the essential of centrifugal compressors
  • Pick up methods of troubleshooting and maintaining

 

COURSE CONTENTS

GAS LAWS AND COMPRESSION THEORY

  • Compression and Expansion Fundamentals
    • What are the laws of thermodynamics?
    • Boyle’s and Charles’ gas laws
    • Ideal Gas Law
    • Isentropic Process
    • T–s (entropy vs. temperature) diagram of an isentropic process, which is a vertical line segment
    • Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines and Compressors
    • Rankine Cycle
    • Polytropic Process
    • Enthalpy–entropy chart
  • Basic Principles of Compression for Centrifugal Compressors
    • Basic Principles of Compression
    • Basic Principles of Compression for Centrifugal Compressors
    • Pressure-Volume Diagram for Compression Processes

 

AN INTRODUCTION TO COMPRESSOR SYSTEM

  • Understanding Compressors
  • Compression Processes
  • Compressors’ Arrangement
  • Compressor systems: –
    • Compressors
    • Lubrication systems
    • Seal systems
    • Drivers
    • Couplings
    • Gearboxes
    • Control systems
    • Baseplate/skid
  • Speed Considerations
  • Typical Characteristics of Compressors
  • Approximate ranges of application for: –
    • reciprocating,
    • centrifugal, and
    • axial-flow compressors
  • Typical Compressors Operating Envelope

 

TYPES OF COMPRESSORS

  • Positive Displacement Compressors,
  • Dynamic Type Compressors, and
  • Thermal Type compressor.
  • Positive Displacement Compressors: –
  • Reciprocating compressors
  • Rotary Compressors: –
    • Lobe-type,
    • Screw-type, and
    • Vane-type
  • Dynamic Type Compressors: –
  • Radial Flow
  • Axial Flow
  • Thermal Type Compressor: –
  • Ejectors
  • Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Difference Compressors
  • Operation Characteristics

 

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS’ MAIN COMPONENTS

  • Components of a Simple Centrifugal Compressor: –
    • inlet,
    • impeller/rotor,
    • diffuser, and
    • collector
  • Type of Centrifugal Impellers
  • Flow Coefficient
  • Centrifugal Impeller
  • Multistage Centrifugal Compressors: –
    • Centrifugal Compressors with a Between-Bearing Design: –
      • Horizontally/axially split, and
      • Radially split.
    • Straight-through arrangement Centrifugal Compressors with a Between-Bearing Design
    • Back-to-back arrangement Centrifugal Compressors with a Between-Bearing Design
    • Centrifugal Compressors with an Integrally Geared Design

 

SPECIFYING COMPRESSOR’S PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

  • Compressor Performance
  • Compressor Head
  • Compressor Head Coefficient
  • Simplified Compressor Performance Map
  • Compressor Efficiency
  • Compressor Horse Power
  • Compressor’s Surge
  • Surge line

 

CALCULATION FOR POWER AND EFFICIENCY OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

  • How to Estimate Compressor Efficiency?
  • Compressor Efficiency
  • Overall Compressor Efficiency
  • Power Calculations
  • Ratio of Compression
  • Head of Compression
  • RPM and Horse Power

 

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS’ OPERATION AND TROUBLESHOOTING

  • Selection of the Compressors
    • Selection Considerations: –
      • Safety
      • Process
      • Economics
      • Site and Location
  • Operations and Troubleshooting
    • Overview of Start-up Procedures
    • Start-up and Shutdown
    • Start-up Guidelines
    • Process Technician’s Role in Operation and Maintenance
    • Troubleshooting Compressor Problems
  • Centrifugal Compressor’s Surging

 

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS’ LUBRICATION, BEARING AND SEALS

  • Lubrication Systems: –
    • Oil reservoir or tank
    • Lube oil pump or pumps
    • Oil filters
    • Oil coolers
    • Associated piping and instrumentation
  • Lubrication System for Centrifugal Compressors
  • Seal Systems
  • Dry Shaft Seals
  • Bearing Systems
  • Ancillary Equipment

 

DRIVE SELECTION

  • General Consideration
  • Type of drivers: –
    • Electric motors
    • Engine drivers
    • Steam Turbines